Putrefactio and mortificatio usually refer to two different aspects of the same
stage in the alchemical process and are both connected to death. Fermentation
is often confused here too, so let's discuss all three.  Putrefactio and mortificatio
are not considered alchemical processes but rather the inevitable result of
various operations on substances which are deemed necessary for
transformation to occur. Mortificatio is represented as a form of torture or
mutilation, as in the Passion of Christ and the death and mutilation of Osiris and
is a feeling we all have experienced more than once in our lives.

Decapitation, another form of separation, is a mortificatio which signals that the
ego must be separated from the archetypal psyche in order to transcend. We
must separate the ego from the collective unconscious, from the energies that
initially gave it form, and learn to discriminate within non-duality, without
projecting or choosing one side over another.

Edward F. Edinger describes
mortificatio of the king or sun at the archetypal
level as “the death and transformation of a collective dominant or ruling
principle.”  Here is where we must slay our dragons and look for what can
redeem us.  The image of God, soul, self needs to be connected back to the
ego consciousness before we can reach any wholeness.  

Fermentation always implies a transformation that occurs with the introduction of
another substance, such as the organic materials inherent in putrefaction.  
Every time we endure any of these three psychological states, we are in a
nigredo, usually enduring loss of psychic energy, the complete deflation of the
ego, feeling souless, in a state of spiritual death.

Key XIII, Death, from the
Builders of the Adytum deck shows a beautiful
combination of the three mental states -
mortification, putrefaction and
while reminding us that these dark stages of the soul provide the
seeds for rebirth and transformational growth.   
I Ching Hexagrams 23 (Po/ Splitting Apart/ Stripping the Corpse) and 24 (Fu/
The Turning Point/ Return of the Spirit) below reflect the process of death and
rebirth through the movement from decay, fermentation and rebirth.  
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
_______   _______
Pamela Colman Smith's version of Judgement, Key XX, shows the archaengel
Gabriel blowing his trumpet and bringing those souls ready for rebirth to higher
levels of vibratory awareness after going through the processes of death,
putrefaction and fermentation.  Again, we are dealing with Separatio: separation
of the subtle from the gross as well as Sublimatio and the ability to exert the right
form of discrimination.
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